Planting

The first choices are the most important

Planting new hazelnut trees is an operation that requires particular attention.
First, it is necessary to carry out a physicochemical analysis of the ground to carefully evaluate the suitability of the soil for the hazelnut seedlings. In addition, it is necessary to choose healthy and certified plants.
An error in choosing the plant could severely affect the entire vegetative and productive cycle of the plant.

Soil

Management, fertilisation and irrigation

Fertilisation is on the of the most important agronomic practices, as it helps maintain fertile soil, reduce the phenomenon of alternating production and allows for higher, good quality production volumes.
The hazelnut is sensitive to water shortages and, in certain climatic conditions, irrigation is the only system which enables plant survival. Today, the practice of subirrigation is spreading, a localised irrigation technique which provides droplet distribution. This allows for a reduction in consumption and a greater uniformity in the distribution of water.

Knowledge

Pruning, adversity and defences

Pruning aims to establish a balance between the productive and vegetative activity of the plant. The removal of excess branches, from the dry and ill parts of the plant, enables a greater penetration of light inside the foliage. Winter is the season where pruning is most recommended. Manual pruning has been replaced by mechanical pruning, with adequate precautions, this could represent the future of efficient hazelnut farming.

There are many hazelnut parasites which can broadly be divided into animal parasites (mites and insects), fungus and bacteria. Many species of bugs can cause damage to hazelnuts. Two types of damage can be identified: traumatic and pest related. It is necessary to identify, using special samples of hazelnut plants, the best moment to intervene with pest control products.

Supply chain

Collecting, cleaning, drying, storage

Hazelnuts can be collected in August and September when the product has fallen to the ground, this can be done in one or two passes, where possible using machinery that enables quick collection from the ground. Once collected, the hazelnut is passed through specialised cleaners that separate the fruit from stones, earth, leaves and twigs. After cleaning, the hazelnuts pass on to the drying phase, they are spread out on special suspended nets or simply on the floor, natural drying is possible thanks to the air and the sun. Nowadays, many plantations are equipped with drying plants with a capacity of 20-30 quintals of hazelnuts. To be preserved and traded over time, hazelnuts must have a moisture content of no more than 8-10% or under 6% if they are shelled.